Financial Statement Discussion and Analysis

Reporting And Analyzing The Income Statement

Accounting PrinciplesAccounting principles are the set guidelines and rules issued by accounting standards like GAAP and IFRS for the companies to follow while recording and presenting the financial information in the books of accounts. And helps identify various trends over the period, which otherwise would have been difficult and time-consuming. Revenue is recognized in the period it is earned, which may or may not be in the same period as the related cash collection.

Reporting And Analyzing The Income Statement

And income is always listed before expense in any group; it’s just that some companies do more sub-grouping before they get to the bottom line. Profitability ratios are financial metrics used to assess a business’s ability to generate profit relative to items such as its revenue or assets. Cash inflows or other enhancements of assets of an entity during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities constitute the entity’s ongoing major operations. It is usually presented as sales minus sales discounts, returns, and allowances. Every time a business sells a product or performs a service, it obtains revenue.

Key Highlights

By converting each number by the sales number for the year, comparing the line items over the years is easy. If you’ve ever been a part of the management team of a startup, you might have some idea of how stressful it can be not to know if you’re going to be able to ‘make payroll’ in the coming months. This is also one way you can gain insight into whether a company is potentially under- or overpriced in the stock market.

Despite both firms having the same net profit margin, Alpha Systems appears to have lower operating costs than TechOne based on the differences between gross and net profit margins. This implies Alpha Systems is operating its business more efficiently than TechOne. In addition to helping you determine your company’s current financial health, this understanding can help you predict future opportunities, decide on business strategy, and create meaningful goals for your team.


It uses this information to make difficult decisions, such as which employees to lay off and when to expand operations. Our primary focus in this chapter, however, is not on the special reports accountants prepare for management. Bottom LineThe bottom line Reporting And Analyzing The Income Statement refers to the net earnings or profit a company generates from its business operations in a particular accounting period that appears at the end of the income statement. A company adopts strategies to reduce costs or raise income to improve its bottom line.

  • Creditors and investors often use liquidity ratios to gauge how well a business is performing.
  • This article will provide a quick overview of the information that you can glean from these important financial statements without requiring you to be an accounting expert.
  • For example, if the draft FSDA standard is considered to be a part of the IPSAS framework then it will be considered to be a part of the financial statements for audit purposes.
  • In other words, it’s the profit before any non-operating income, non-operating expenses, interest, or taxes are subtracted from revenues.EBITis a term commonly used in finance and stands for Earnings Before Interest and Taxes.
  • The analysis of the income statement involves comparing the different line items within a statement, as well as following trend lines of individual line items over multiple periods.

In this post, we will see the power of financial analysis and reporting in detail, look at real-world finance reporting examples, and discuss why this approach should be a vital component of every modern business strategy. Your operating profit margin is similar to your gross profit margin, but taking general expenses into account as well. You can increase this profit margin by raising prices, lowering COGS, or lowering operating expenses and overhead. If you have access to balance sheets and cash flow statements, you may be able to round out the missing pieces. Finally, using the drivers and assumptions prepared in the previous step, forecast future values for all the line items within the income statement.

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